Eventually, France intends to expand the score to other classes of consumer products. By 2024 the repair index will transition to a “durability index” that not only tells customers how repairable a product is but also describes its overall robustness.
While the repairability index became an official requirement on January 1, many manufacturers are slow-walking its implementation, according to Vallauri. “There wasn’t really enough time to enforce it in early 2021,” Vallauri said, explaining that some of the scoring criteria were only agreed on toward the end of last year.
But a trickle of scores are starting to emerge. The French spare parts business Spareka is publishing repairability indices as it receives them from manufacturers, and so far, its website includes scores for Asko washing machines, Samsung TVs, OnePlus smartphones, and more.
The scoring system has its limitations. Vallauri explained that the indexes were developed through an intensive stakeholder process that involved input from manufacturers as well as consumer advocacy organizations. Ultimately, this led to some compromises. For instance, as Adèle Chasson of the French repair advocacy organization Stop Planned Obsolescence noted in a blog post, laptop and smartphone makers can get a “free point” by providing consumers with information about different types of software updates, such as security updates or system upgrades—information that may not have anything to do with how fixable the device is.
Perhaps more concerningly, manufacturers are going to be self-reporting their scores, and it is unclear whether there will be rigorous governmental oversight to ensure the math is being done correctly.
“Certainly we have seen manufacturers abuse this kind of scoring system in the past,” said Kyle Wiens, CEO of the repair site iFixit, which helped advise the French government on the development of the index. (In fact, France’s index took inspiration from the repairability scores iFixit has been assigning products for years.) But Wiens also suspects that competition will help keep greenwashing in check: Apple, for instance, could call out Samsung if its competitor comes out with a dubiously high repairability index for a flagship smartphone.
“Any time you have something like this, you’ll see competitors pushing back on each other,” Wiens said.
Repair advocates across Europe are watching the rollout of the French index closely in the hope that it will soon be spread beyond France’s borders. In November, the European Parliament voted in favor of developing laws that mandate EU-wide repairability labeling. Vallauri said that the EU is still “probably a few years away” from repairability scores appearing at every shop in every member country, but that draft legislation is expected to emerge this year. The fact that France chose to go first with its own score, he said, “shows that it’s possible” and represents “a good learning opportunity for other countries that can now build on what the French lawmakers created.”
The repair community is equally interested in seeing how the French scoring system impacts both consumers and manufacturers.
In September, the French government published the results of a study that looked at how 140,000 online shoppers responded to a beta version of the repairability index that included all of the final criteria except for the price of spare parts. It found that customers tended to avoid purchasing laptops with a repair index compared with laptops lacking one. Project manager Laurianne Vagharchakian, a behavioral sciences researcher with the French government, attributes this to the fact that the study’s average repairability score, at 5.4 out of 10, was probably “not very motivating and attractive” to potential buyers. Other research suggests that consumers prefer products with labels indicating a longer life-span over competing, shorter-lived products, and that in some cases, they may be willing to pay much more for the more durable product.